Arthritis or degenerative disease of the joint is a pathology where the joint surfaces cartilage get damaged and synovial fluid is altered in character. It mostly affects the weight-bearing joints of the body such as knee and hip. Multiple factors play role in the etiology depending on the site of pathology. Mostly medical treatment and lifestyle modifications work for most of the patients. However, surgery in the form joint replacement is needed in those who are analgesic dependent or with severe limitation of ADL or severe difficulty in walking due to pain.
Knee it is more commonly affected by arthritis in Indians due to practices of sitting cross-legged and squatting. Most common cases or arthritis are
There is a gradual loss of cartilage and alteration of the character of synovial fluid contributing to the roughness of the joint. Pain, deformity, and limitation of ADL increase as the disease progresses.
Risk factors include :
a. Increasing age
b. Females > 50 yr
c. Genetic predisposition
2. Rheumatoid arthritis:
It is an autoimmune disease where antibodies act against the native synovium of the knee causing secondary destruction of joint and arthritis. It mostly affects the young females.